Labels are metadata that provide identifying attributes relevant to users. They are key/value pairs that can be attached to Kubernetes objects such as Pods, Services, and Nodes. Labels are primarily used to organize and select subsets of objects, enabling users to apply a set of labels to objects and then use label selectors to find objects that match those labels. Labels are also used by other Kubernetes components, such as Replication Controllers, to manage groups of objects. external-link

Label Issuer

Entities designated by the Gaia-X Association to create and distribute Labels are known as Label Issuers. To create a Label, the Label Issuer breaks down all the Label requirements into Verifiable Credentials, which are subsequently encoded within the Compliance and Labelling framework to facilitate automated verification whenever possible. The entity responsible for issuing a Label can be either Gaia-X or another Issuer that has been verified and approved by Gaia-X. external-link

Label Level 1

Regarding the three fundamental Gaia-X Labels, Label Level 1 ensures compliance with the Gaia-X Policy Rules Document and the set of basic technical requirements derived from the Gaia-X Architecture Document, thus guaranteeing data protection, transparency, security, portability, and flexibility. In terms of cybersecurity, the minimum requirement is to meet the Basic Level of ENISA's European Cybersecurity Scheme. external-link

Label Level 2

Regarding the three fundamental Gaia-X Labels, Label Level 2 builds upon the basic requirements of Level 1 and reflects a higher level of security, transparency of applicable legal rules, and potential dependencies. Additionally, it requires the option of a service location in Europe to be provided to the consumer. In terms of cybersecurity, the minimum requirement is to meet the Substantial Level of ENISA's European Cybersecurity Scheme. external-link

Label Level 3

Referring to the three Gaia-X Basic Labels: Label Level 3 aims to achieve the highest standards of data protection, security, transparency, portability, and flexibility, with European control as a key factor. It builds upon the requirements of Levels 1 and 2, with additional criteria that guarantee protection against non-European access and provide a strong level of control over vendor lock-in. Having a service location in Europe is compulsory. In terms of cybersecurity, meeting ENISAs European Cybersecurity Scheme - High Level is the minimum requirement. external-link

Label Owner

Label Owners are entities that choose to create a particular Label for their organization. Such entities may include Service Providers, Service Users, Governmental Authorities, Standardization Authorities, Trade Associations, Industrial Associations, and others. The decision to develop a Gaia-X Label is based on its potential use and benefits. For instance, a Banking Association may decide to create a Label specifically for banks to ensure that all cloud services used by their members meet certain requirements. In this example, the Banking Association determines the Label's name and specifies the verification requirements (e.g., territorial jurisdiction, service location, required certifications, etc.). The Label Owner collaborates with the Gaia-X Association to design and issue the Label and must obtain formal approval from Gaia-X. external-link

Labelling Criteria

The detailed criteria that define the various levels of Gaia-X Basic Labels are outlined in the Policy Rules and Labelling Document, and they are structured by attributes that fall into different categories such as data protection, transparency, security, portability, flexibility, and European control. external-link


Labels are pairs of key/value that are linked to objects like Pods. These labels serve the purpose of specifying identifying attributes of objects that hold significance and relevance to users. However, they do not directly imply any meaning to the core system. Labels offer the ability to organize and select specific subsets of objects. They can be assigned to objects during their creation and can be added or modified at any point afterward. Each object can possess a collection of unique key/value labels, with each key being distinct for a particular object. external-link

Lambda architecture

A constructively usable template for conception and Big data application design is Nathan's Marz and James Warren published the lambda Architecture40. The modularization provided for in the architecture corresponds to typical requirements of big data Applications broader and systematized them. In this way, the architecture approach is useful to technical and non-functional requirements for new ones Uncover and assess applications independently of what form and to what extent the Module as technical components of the application will be realized. external-link

LAMP - Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP

This term refers to a "standard toolkit" used to provide dynamic web pages and applications. external-link

Latency (delay time)

In the case of latency, an action remains hidden and only becomes visible through a reaction. In common language, reactions with low latency are referred to as real-time responses. external-link


Layout refers to the organization of modules and the transportation pathways connecting them within a production facility. It can be altered both during planning stages and throughout the production process.

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LCM Engine

The LCM Engine is a service that is part of the Portal. It serves as an interface between the Portal, LCM services, and PPR during the life cycle management of a Gaia-X service. external-link

Learning algorithm

Within the field of computer science, an algorithm is a precise set of instructions that can be followed to accomplish a specific task. In the context of machine learning, this task involves refining a model using training data to achieve optimization. external-link

Learning Analytics

The collection, compilation, analysis, and reporting of personal data related to learning for the purpose of optimizing the learning process and the learning environment. The customization of the learning process enhances the effectiveness of the educational operation. external-link

Learning Management Systems

A complex software system that serves the provision of learning content and the organization of learning processes is known as a Learning Management System (LMS). It enables communication between learners and educators. Modern LMSs also integrate Content Management Systems (Learning Content Management Systems, LCMS) and are connected to campus management systems through interfaces. external-link

Legal Person Credential

A Legal Person Credential is a digital representation of legal entity information, such as the registration details, business identification, or legal status of a company or organization. It serves as a verifiable proof of the entity's legal existence and can be used in digital transactions, regulatory compliance, or business interactions. external-link

LET (Legal Entity Identifier)

LET (Legal Entity Identifier) is a unique identification code assigned to legal entities engaging in financial transactions. It provides a standardized way to identify and track entities involved in global financial markets. LETs are used to enhance transparency, risk management, and regulatory reporting, promoting a more efficient and secure financial system. external-link

Life cycle

The progression of stages a data space initiative undergoes, each characterized by distinct needs and challenges. external-link

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol

The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is a software protocol designed to allow easy access to information regarding organizations, individuals, and various resources like files and devices within a network. This applies to both the public internet and internal corporate intranets. external-link


LimitRange is a Kubernetes resource that allows you to set constraints on resource consumption per Pods or Containers in a namespace. It limits the number of objects that can be created by type and the amount of CPU, memory, and storage resources that each Container or Pod can request or consume. external-link

Line of business

The term "line of business" (LOB) refers to the specific product or service offerings provided by a business or manufacturer. For instance, a company specializing in solid-state disk drives may identify their line of business as data storage. external-link


The name of a well-known open-source Unix derivative is based on the name of its creator, Linus Torvalds. This operating system is freely available and can be modified and distributed without any licensing fees or restrictions. external-link

Living Lab

The Telekom Data Intelligence Hub (DIH) offers a managed, pre-configured and resettable dataspace sandbox, called DIH Living Lab. It provides an end-to-end dataspace experience and allows users to prototype and test different use cases or applications within dataspace environment.

Data Intelligence Hub

Load management

The integration of the demand side (electricity consumption) into the flexible management of the power supply system enables a more effective coordination of generation and consumption. The goal of demand management is to balance generation and price fluctuations, provide balancing and regulating energy, and relieve overloaded network sections, especially in the distribution network, in the long term. external-link

Local Area Network

A local communication network allows users in a limited geographical region or at a specific location to communicate and exchange information with each other. It is utilized in various environments and plays a significant role in enhancing collaboration and coordination of activities at the local level. external-link

Local Business Unit

A Local Business Unit (LBU) refers to a distinct operational division or branch within a larger organization that operates within a specific geographical area or region. LBUs are often established to cater to the unique needs and characteristics of the local market. They have a certain level of autonomy and decision-making authority, allowing them to adapt their strategies and operations to the local environment. LBUs are responsible for managing their own resources, such as personnel, budget, and assets, while aligning with the overall goals and objectives of the larger organization. This decentralized structure enables organizations to effectively serve diverse markets and customers at the local level. external-link


Logs refer to the recorded events or messages generated by the cluster or application. They provide useful information about the internal workings of the cluster and can be used to troubleshoot issues or monitor the activity of the cluster. Application and system logs are especially helpful for understanding what is happening inside the cluster. external-link

Logical Unit number

The Small System Computer Interface (SCSI) standard defines a logical unit number (LUN) as a distinctive identifier used to designate either an individual storage device or a group of physical or virtual storage devices that carry out input/output (I/O) commands in collaboration with a host computer. external-link


Logistics, which encompasses both transport and storage, is not considered a direct part of the production process in terms of creating the final product. However, it is a necessary component in the overall production system to facilitate the movement of components and intermediate products between modules, as well as temporary storage. Logistics considerations must take into account the requirements of each module and intermediate product, such as size, weight, and transfer methods, and be integrated into the processing logic of the production system.

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