Labels are metadata that provide identifying attributes relevant to users. They are key/value pairs that can be attached to Kubernetes objects such as Pods, Services, and Nodes. Labels are primarily used to organize and select subsets of objects, enabling users to apply a set of labels to objects and then use label selectors to find objects that match those labels. Labels are also used by other Kubernetes components, such as Replication Controllers, to manage groups of objects. external-link

Label Issuer

Entities designated by the Gaia-X Association to create and distribute Labels are known as Label Issuers. To create a Label, the Label Issuer breaks down all the Label requirements into Verifiable Credentials, which are subsequently encoded within the Compliance and Labelling framework to facilitate automated verification whenever possible. The entity responsible for issuing a Label can be either Gaia-X or another Issuer that has been verified and approved by Gaia-X. external-link

Label Level 1

Regarding the three fundamental Gaia-X Labels, Label Level 1 ensures compliance with the Gaia-X Policy Rules Document and the set of basic technical requirements derived from the Gaia-X Architecture Document, thus guaranteeing data protection, transparency, security, portability, and flexibility. In terms of cybersecurity, the minimum requirement is to meet the Basic Level of ENISA's European Cybersecurity Scheme. external-link

Label Level 2

Regarding the three fundamental Gaia-X Labels, Label Level 2 builds upon the basic requirements of Level 1 and reflects a higher level of security, transparency of applicable legal rules, and potential dependencies. Additionally, it requires the option of a service location in Europe to be provided to the consumer. In terms of cybersecurity, the minimum requirement is to meet the Substantial Level of ENISA's European Cybersecurity Scheme. external-link

Label Level 3

Referring to the three Gaia-X Basic Labels: Label Level 3 aims to achieve the highest standards of data protection, security, transparency, portability, and flexibility, with European control as a key factor. It builds upon the requirements of Levels 1 and 2, with additional criteria that guarantee protection against non-European access and provide a strong level of control over vendor lock-in. Having a service location in Europe is compulsory. In terms of cybersecurity, meeting ENISAs European Cybersecurity Scheme - High Level is the minimum requirement. external-link

Label Owner

Label Owners are entities that choose to create a particular Label for their organization. Such entities may include Service Providers, Service Users, Governmental Authorities, Standardization Authorities, Trade Associations, Industrial Associations, and others. The decision to develop a Gaia-X Label is based on its potential use and benefits. For instance, a Banking Association may decide to create a Label specifically for banks to ensure that all cloud services used by their members meet certain requirements. In this example, the Banking Association determines the Label's name and specifies the verification requirements (e.g., territorial jurisdiction, service location, required certifications, etc.). The Label Owner collaborates with the Gaia-X Association to design and issue the Label and must obtain formal approval from Gaia-X. external-link

Labelling Criteria

The detailed criteria that define the various levels of Gaia-X Basic Labels are outlined in the Policy Rules and Labelling Document, and they are structured by attributes that fall into different categories such as data protection, transparency, security, portability, flexibility, and European control. external-link

LAMP - Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP

This term refers to a "standard toolkit" used to provide dynamic web pages and applications. external-link


Layout refers to the organization of modules and the transportation pathways connecting them within a production facility. It can be altered both during planning stages and throughout the production process.

Catena-X Automotive Network e.V. external-link

LCM Engine

The LCM Engine is a service that is part of the Portal. It serves as an interface between the Portal, LCM services, and PPR during the life cycle management of a Gaia-X service. external-link

Learning algorithm

Within the field of computer science, an algorithm is a precise set of instructions that can be followed to accomplish a specific task. In the context of machine learning, this task involves refining a model using training data to achieve optimization. external-link

Learning Analytics

The collection, compilation, analysis, and reporting of personal data related to learning for the purpose of optimizing the learning process and the learning environment. The customization of the learning process enhances the effectiveness of the educational operation. external-link

Learning Management Systems

A complex software system that serves the provision of learning content and the organization of learning processes is known as a Learning Management System (LMS). It enables communication between learners and educators. Modern LMSs also integrate Content Management Systems (Learning Content Management Systems, LCMS) and are connected to campus management systems through interfaces. external-link


LimitRange is a Kubernetes resource that allows you to set constraints on resource consumption per Pods or Containers in a namespace. It limits the number of objects that can be created by type and the amount of CPU, memory, and storage resources that each Container or Pod can request or consume. external-link

line of business

A line of business refers to a distinct segment within a corporation that is dedicated to the production or sale of a particular product or a family of related products. external-link


The name of a well-known open-source Unix derivative is based on the name of its creator, Linus Torvalds. This operating system is freely available and can be modified and distributed without any licensing fees or restrictions. external-link

Living Lab

The Telekom Data Intelligence Hub (DIH) offers a managed, pre-configured and resettable dataspace sandbox, called DIH Living Lab. It provides an end-to-end dataspace experience and allows users to prototype and test different use cases or applications within dataspace environment.

Data Intelligence Hub external-link

Local Area Network

A local communication network allows users in a limited geographical region or at a specific location to communicate and exchange information with each other. It is utilized in various environments and plays a significant role in enhancing collaboration and coordination of activities at the local level. external-link


Logs refer to the recorded events or messages generated by the cluster or application. They provide useful information about the internal workings of the cluster and can be used to troubleshoot issues or monitor the activity of the cluster. Application and system logs are especially helpful for understanding what is happening inside the cluster. external-link

Logical Unit number

A Logical Unit Number (LUN) is a unique identifier for individual or a group of hard disk drives. external-link


Logistics, which encompasses both transport and storage, is not considered a direct part of the production process in terms of creating the final product. However, it is a necessary component in the overall production system to facilitate the movement of components and intermediate products between modules, as well as temporary storage. Logistics considerations must take into account the requirements of each module and intermediate product, such as size, weight, and transfer methods, and be integrated into the processing logic of the production system.

Catena-X Automotive Network e.V. external-link

Long Term Evolution

LTE, as the successor standard to UMTS, provides a significantly higher bandwidth of over 100 Mbit/s per cell. external-link

Low Cost Storage (Object Storage)

Object storage, also known as object-based storage, refers to a method of managing and accessing individual storage units called objects. These storage objects contain both data content and context information. external-link