Identity / Access Management

Identity & Access Management (IAM) controls access to data and provides answers to two fundamental questions: Who is the user? The user's identity is verified through authentication and typically stored in an employee directory. What permissions does the user have? This question relates to authorization for specific actions. For example, the right to read or edit data may be tied to the user's role. IAM is an established concept that is also used in big data solutions. external-link

Identity & Trust 

Identity and Trust is a key Federation Service provided by Gaia-X that enables Participants in a Gaia-X ecosystem to establish and verify their identities. It is responsible for managing identity and access for both Providers and Consumers within the ecosystem, ensuring that Participants are who they claim to be. external-link

Identity System 

An Identity System is a Gaia-X component responsible for verifying and augmenting the identity of a Gaia-X Principal, and then passing that identity on to the requester. A Gaia-X accredited Identity System takes a hybrid approach and comprises both centralized components, such as company identity management systems, and decentralized components such as Decentralized Identifiers (DIDs). external-link

IDS Reference Architecture Model

Data Exchange, Data Sharing, and Data Sovereignty are crucial for businesses that rely on data. The International Data Spaces Reference Architecture Model (IDS-RAM) provides a framework for ensuring trusted data exchange and defines key concepts related to Data Sovereignty, Data Sharing, and Data Exchange. The IDS-RAM operates at a higher abstraction level than typical software architecture models and consists of five layers that specify the various roles, activities, and interactions involved in creating a secure network of trusted data. The IDS-RAM also includes three perspectives - Security, Certification, and Governance - that are essential for ensuring the security and integrity of the data. Overall, the IDS-RAM provides a comprehensive guide for implementing secure and trusted data exchange in the International Data Spaces. external-link

IDSA Ready Certified

To ensure that every IDS-compliant connector functions as defined by the IDS standard, it undergoes certification, along with the operating environment it operates in, against specific security and interoperability standards. Based on this foundation of trust, participants can initiate their actual data exchange. For more information, visit:

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IEC 62541

OPC UA is an international standard for an industrial-grade M2M communication protocol. It enables interoperable communication between machines in various applications and industries, such as manufacturing, automation, and logistics. external-link

In Memory Data Grid

One type of in-memory data storage technology is the In-Memory Data Grid (IMDG) platforms with distributed or elastic caching. Such solutions combine multiple servers in a logical caching cluster to provide data fault tolerance and quick access to applications. The systems store all data in main memory and use the significantly faster computer memory for data storage and processing compared to the hard drive. This is particularly in demand in use cases where short response times are required, such as in finance, where decisions must be made within seconds when transactions arrive. external-link

In Memory Data Management

In-Memory Data Management (IMDM) refers to a data storage technology where data is stored and managed in the main memory of one or more servers. Compared to traditional databases that store data on hard disks, IMDM enables significantly faster access to data. external-link

In-Memory Computing

In-memory computing is a method of storing data in the primary random access memory (RAM) of dedicated servers rather than using complex relational databases that rely on slower disk drives. This technology empowers businesses in various sectors, including retail, banking, and utilities, to quickly identify patterns, analyze vast amounts of data in real-time, and efficiently execute operations. The declining prices of memory play a significant role in the increased popularity of in-memory computing, making it an affordable choice for a broad range of applications. external-link

Information Rights Management 

Information Rights Management (IRM) is a type of Digital Rights Management (DRM) that is specifically designed to protect enterprise data and ensure that it is only accessed by authorized parties and in accordance with agreed license terms. In the context of Gaia-X, IRM technologies could be used to restrict access to data only to users within the EU or other authorized jurisdictions. Due to the complexity and cost of implementing IRM, it is typically used only for the most valuable or sensitive shared data or in situations where liability could arise from misuse by the recipient. external-link

Infrastructure ecosystem

This term refers to an ecosystem that emphasizes computing, storage, and interconnection components. external-link


The Infrastrukturatlas contains geodata on existing infrastructures in Germany that can be used in principle for the establishment of broadband networks and the increase of transmission capacities of existing networks. These include, for example, existing fiber optic cables, empty conduits, radio masts, and microwave links provided by infrastructure owners from various industries, particularly companies in the telecommunications and energy sectors. In addition, suitable infrastructures of the public sector are incorporated into the database of the Infrastrukturatlas. external-link

Ingoing Traffic (in GB)

Maximum amount of data that can be transferred from a Provider residing on a different cloud provider / location, before additional costs are incurred.

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An Ingress is a Kubernetes API object that enables external access to services in a cluster, typically through HTTP. It provides a way to manage external traffic routing to internal services, and can handle tasks such as load balancing, SSL termination, and name-based virtual hosting. external-link

Init Container

Init containers are a set of one or more containers that are executed before the main container(s) of a pod start running. Their purpose is to perform some initialization task(s) that the main container(s) depend on, such as setting up configuration files or initializing a database. Init containers run to completion before the main container(s) start running and can run in sequence or parallel, depending on the configuration. external-link

Instantiated Virtual Resource

A Instantiated Virtual Resource Instance represents a specific occurrence of a Virtual Resource, and is analogous to a Service Instance. It is defined by its endpoints and access privileges. external-link

intelligent networks

Intelligent Networks refer to solutions that enable network-controlled regulation or coordination of various technical devices. This is usually done contextually and through an automated exchange of data. The goal is to better manage complex systems, increase efficiency, link consumption and generation, conserve resources, and enable new networked applications. Intelligent networks begin/end with sensors/actuators that retrieve/provide data, are aggregated over communication channels of various, mostly broadband access technologies, and lead to platforms for storage or further processing through application-specific services. external-link

Interconnection Services

Interconnection Services in Gaia-X facilitate secure and efficient data exchange among various Providers, Consumers, and their respective services. This ecosystem enables the integration of services from multiple Providers. The Interconnection Services are a crucial factor in enabling the composition of services provided by diverse and distributed providers, ensuring optimal performance in a multi-provider network, as opposed to a single-provider network. external-link

Intermodal mobility

Intermodal transport includes both passenger and freight transport and refers to a multi-stage transport chain in which different modes of transport are linked together within a single travel chain. external-link

International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection

The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) is an organization dedicated to protecting against radiation that has no ionizing effect. external-link

International Standard Book Number

A unique identification number used worldwide for monographic publications such as printed books, e-books, picture calendars, and maps is the International Standard Book Number (ISBN). The use of ISBN provides each product with a unique identification and makes it distinct. Additionally, the ISBN is machine-readable through a barcode. external-link

International Telecommunication Union

The ITU is a United Nations agency that focuses on technical aspects of telecommunications. The organization is divided into three sectors: ITU-D (Telecommunication Development Sector), ITU-R (Radiocommunication Sector), and ITU-T (Telecommunication Standardization Sector). external-link

Internet Data Center

Internet data centers (IDCs) can come in various shapes and sizes. At its core, an IDC is a data center that is connected to and accessible through the Internet. However, this definition is too broad as it would encompass almost every corporate data center hosting an Internet-visible web or email server. In the industry, an IDC is generally understood to be an outsourced solution: a data center that is hosted by a third party on behalf of a company and accessible to authorized individuals and entities, including employees, customers, and partners, via the Internet. external-link

Internet of Everything

The concept of the Internet of Everything (IoE) brings together people, processes, data, and devices to make interconnected connections even more valuable and significant. Information is transformed into actions that can open up new options, deeper experiences, and economic opportunities for businesses, individuals, and entire countries. external-link

Internet Protocol Security

An end-to-end security protocol that operates directly on the network layer of the TCP/IP protocol stack is referred to as an end-to-end security protocol. This ensures a consistent security model that extends from one end of the communication to the other end of the communication (E2E). external-link


This pertains to the interaction between the service offering and another service, including the process of initiating or answering requests. external-link

IP Peering

Usually refers to the consolidation of similarly sized IP-based computer networks from different providers for the exchange of data. This consolidation is typically done at no additional cost. external-link

IP Transit

IP Transit describes the connection of IP-based computer networks for data exchange, similar to IP peering. However, in contrast to IP peering, a smaller network is connected to a larger network to gain access to the rest of the internet. Costs are often charged based on the amount of data transferred. external-link