Identity / Access Management

Identity & Access Management (IAM) controls access to data and provides answers to two fundamental questions: Who is the user? The user's identity is verified through authentication and typically stored in an employee directory. What permissions does the user have? This question relates to authorization for specific actions. For example, the right to read or edit data may be tied to the user's role. IAM is an established concept that is also used in big data solutions. external-link

Identity Provider

An intermediary that provides services to create, uphold, manage, and validate identity data of and for Participants in the International Data Spaces. external-link

Identity System 

An Identity System is a Gaia-X component responsible for verifying and augmenting the identity of a Gaia-X Principal, and then passing that identity on to the requester. A Gaia-X accredited Identity System takes a hybrid approach and comprises both centralized components, such as company identity management systems, and decentralized components such as Decentralized Identifiers (DIDs). external-link


A secure data exchange is facilitated by a distributed network of Data Endpoints, which are essentially instances of the International Data Spaces Connector. This network ensures data sovereignty by guaranteeing the secure exchange of data. external-link

IDS Reference Architecture Model

Data Exchange, Data Sharing, and Data Sovereignty are crucial for businesses that rely on data. The International Data Spaces Reference Architecture Model (IDS-RAM) provides a framework for ensuring trusted data exchange and defines key concepts related to Data Sovereignty, Data Sharing, and Data Exchange. The IDS-RAM operates at a higher abstraction level than typical software architecture models and consists of five layers that specify the various roles, activities, and interactions involved in creating a secure network of trusted data. The IDS-RAM also includes three perspectives - Security, Certification, and Governance - that are essential for ensuring the security and integrity of the data. Overall, the IDS-RAM provides a comprehensive guide for implementing secure and trusted data exchange in the International Data Spaces. external-link

IEC 61850

The international standard describes a transmission protocol used in the protection and control technology for medium- and high-voltage switchgear. The protocol enables reliable transmission of information about the status and control of electric switchgear and thus provides an important basis for the safe operation of power grids. external-link

If This Then That

IFTTT, pronounced to rhyme with "gift," is an online service designed to streamline Web-based tasks. It allows users to automate actions in response to specific events, ensuring efficient handling of subsequent tasks. external-link

In-Memory Data Grid

An In-Memory Data Grid is a distributed computing technology that stores and processes data in the main memory (RAM) of multiple interconnected servers. It provides high-speed data access and processing by eliminating disk-based I/O latency. In-Memory Data Grids are used for caching frequently accessed data, accelerating data-intensive applications, and improving overall system performance. external-link

Industry 4.0

The term "fourth industrial revolution" refers to the integration of information and communication technologies (ICT) into industrial production and related areas to create a connected environment. external-link

Information Network of the Federal Administration/Federal Administration Network (BVN)

The Information Network of the Federal Administration (IVBV) or the Federal Administrative Network (BNV) extends the IVBB system to connect federal authorities in different regions. external-link

Infrastructure as a Service

Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) refers to a cloud computing model in which a user can access typical services provided by a data center, such as IT infrastructure, while mostly managing their own computing instances, which are virtual servers. The user is not required to operate their own servers, storage, network components, and other hardware, and is billed based on usage. However, the user is responsible for selecting, installing, operating, and ensuring the proper functioning of their own software. The key advantage of IaaS compared to owning a data center is the high scalability of computing instances, which can be easily expanded or reduced based on demand. external-link

Ingoing Traffic (in GB)

Maximum amount of data that can be transferred from a Provider residing on a different cloud provider / location, before additional costs are incurred.

Data Intelligence Hub


An Ingress is a Kubernetes API object that enables external access to services in a cluster, typically through HTTP. It provides a way to manage external traffic routing to internal services, and can handle tasks such as load balancing, SSL termination, and name-based virtual hosting. external-link

Init Container

Init containers are a set of one or more containers that are executed before the main container(s) of a pod start running. Their purpose is to perform some initialization task(s) that the main container(s) depend on, such as setting up configuration files or initializing a database. Init containers run to completion before the main container(s) start running and can run in sequence or parallel, depending on the configuration. external-link

Input Output Operations per Second

Input/Output Operations per Second (IOPS) is a performance measurement that quantifies the number of input or output operations a storage device or system can perform in one second. It is commonly used to assess the speed and responsiveness of storage devices, such as hard drives or solid-state drives (SSDs), and is an important factor in determining overall system performance. external-link

Instantiated Virtual Resource

A Instantiated Virtual Resource Instance represents a specific occurrence of a Virtual Resource, and is analogous to a Service Instance. It is defined by its endpoints and access privileges. external-link

Intel Advanced Encryption Standard New Instructions

The 2010 Intel® Core™ processor family, built on the 32nm Intel® microarchitecture codenamed Westmere, introduces the Intel® AES instructions. These innovative instructions empower rapid and reliable data encryption and decryption, employing the highly secure Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) specified in FIPS Publication number 197. external-link

Intelligent Tutoring Systems

Intelligent tutoring systems offer a learner-centered educational scenario through the application of common learning theories (such as behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism) and the use of methods and techniques of artificial intelligence. They include instruction, feedback, exercises, and other cognitive processes (such as imagination) without the assistance of a human teacher. external-link

Interface Identifier

An IPv6 address consists of 128 bits. Typically, the first 64 bits define the network, while the last 64 bits are referred to as the interface identifier. external-link

Intermodal traffic data network system

An intermodal transportation data exchange system facilitates the exchange of data and information between freight transport, passenger transport, and individual transport for the purpose of integration. This interconnected system also enables transactions such as booking multiple modes of transportation with a single ticket. external-link

International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection

The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) is an organization dedicated to protecting against radiation that has no ionizing effect. external-link

International Electrotechnical Commision

An organization that operates in the electrical industry and specializes in creating international standards. external-link

Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers

An organization with global responsibility that performs various tasks to coordinate the internet, including the allocation of names for websites and internet addresses. external-link

Internet of Everything

The concept of the Internet of Everything (IoE) goes beyond the Internet of Things (IoT) by focusing on machine-to-machine (M2M) communications and includes a broader system that involves people and processes. external-link

Internet Service Provider

An Internet Service Provider (ISP) is a company that provides its customers with access to the internet. An ISP provides the necessary hardware and infrastructure to establish a connection to the internet, as well as various plans and speeds that meet the requirements of the customers. external-link

Intrusion Detection System

A security system for detecting attacks on computer or network systems, based on characteristic patterns or the correlation of events. external-link

IP Multimedia Subsystem

The IMS is a service architecture that aims to efficiently provide various multimedia services, such as Voice-over-IP and video conferencing, on different devices. To achieve this, the technologies of the internet are combined with those of mobile and fixed-line telecommunications. The IMS includes not only the definition of standards, but also the development of control and management functions for data traffic, as well as the ability to execute services independently of the underlying technologies and protocols of the communication networks. This enables easy and flexible use of services on different networks without requiring users to deal with specific network technologies. external-link

IP Peering

Usually refers to the consolidation of similarly sized IP-based computer networks from different providers for the exchange of data. This consolidation is typically done at no additional cost. external-link


Through the "IT2Green - Energy-efficient ICT for SMEs, Administration and the Home" program, the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology supports innovative model projects aimed at reducing the energy consumption of information and communications technologies (ICT) in data centers, telecommunications networks, and office and home applications. external-link