Anyone involved in the International Data Spaces and taking on one or more of the established roles is considered a stakeholder. Each participant is assigned a unique identity by the Identity Provider. external-link

Peer-2-Peer communication

In a peer-to-peer (P2P) communications model, all parties possess equal capabilities and can initiate communication sessions interchangeably, resulting in a decentralized system. external-link

Permissible Standard (ref. Policy Rules and Labelling Document)

One interpretation of the definition of Gaia-X Labelling Criteria (as outlined in the Policy Rules and Labelling Document) is that Permissible Standards should identify specific standards or requirements, including controls within those standards, where compliance would be viewed as prima facie evidence of meeting the relevant Gaia-X criterion. external-link

Persistent Volume

A PersistentVolume (PV) is a Kubernetes API object that represents storage within a cluster. Unlike storage that is specific to an individual Pod, PVs are a general resource that persists beyond the lifecycle of any given Pod. The PV API abstracts the details of how storage is provided, separate from how it is consumed. PVs are primarily used in cases where storage can be pre-provisioned statically. However, when on-demand storage is required, Kubernetes utilizes PersistentVolumeClaims (PVCs) instead. external-link

Persistent Volume Claim

A Persistent Volume Claim (PVC) is a Kubernetes API object that reserves storage resources from a PersistentVolume, allowing it to be mounted as a volume within a container. A PVC defines the storage capacity, access mode (read-only, read-write, and/or exclusive), and reclaim policy (retained, recycled, or deleted) for the reserved storage. The specifics of the storage are defined in the PersistentVolume object, while the PVC serves as a claim on that storage resource. external-link

PID framework

A development methodology for C/C++ projects that homogenizes projects development process and automates operations to perform during their lifecycle. external-link

Plant Resources

The Bill of Equipment (BoE) is a comprehensive list of all the available resources, including both human and machine resources, provided by a production system.

Catena-X Automotive Network e.V. external-link

Platform as a Service

In cloud computing diagrams, a platform as a service (PaaS) offering is often illustrated as being positioned between the SaaS layer above it and the IaaS layer below it. PaaS consists of a wide range of middleware services, such as application platforms, integration tools, business process management systems, and database services. Despite this, the PaaS concept is predominantly associated with application PaaS (aPaaS) and is therefore the focus of most of the attention surrounding the category. external-link

Platform Developer

A Platform Developer is an individual who tailors the Kubernetes platform to meet the specific requirements of their project. This customization could involve utilizing Custom Resources or extending the Kubernetes API with the aggregation layer to introduce new functionality that is unique to their Kubernetes instance and their application. Some Platform Developers contribute to the Kubernetes community by creating open-source extensions, while others develop proprietary or site-specific extensions. external-link

Platform Operations Management

Operation management involves planning, coordinating, and directing the activities that transform resources into the desired products and services, while also aligning with the company's overall business strategy. external-link


A Pod is the most basic and elementary object in Kubernetes. It is used to represent a group of containers that are running on a cluster. Usually, a Pod is configured to run a single primary container, but it can also support additional sidecar containers that provide supplementary functionalities such as logging. Deployments are typically used to manage Pods. external-link

Pod Disruption

Pod disruption refers to the procedure of terminating Pods on Nodes, either deliberately or unintentionally. Voluntary disruptions are initiated on purpose by application owners or cluster administrators. On the other hand, involuntary disruptions occur inadvertently and may be triggered by unavoidable problems such as Nodes running low on resources or accidental deletions. external-link

Pod Disruption Budget

A Pod Disruption Budget is a tool that enables application owners to create an object for a replicated application. This object ensures that a specific number or percentage of Pods with a designated label will not be intentionally terminated at any given time. It is important to note that involuntary disruptions cannot be prevented by PDBs; however, they do count towards the budget. external-link

Pod Lifecycle

The Pod Lifecycle refers to the series of stages that a Pod goes through during its existence. It is defined by a set of states or phases that a Pod can be in. These phases include Pending, Running, Succeeded, Failed, and Unknown. The overall status of a Pod is represented by the PodStatus phase field, which provides a concise description of its current state. external-link

Pod Priority

Pod Priority is a feature that determines the relative significance of a Pod compared to other Pods. It enables the scheduling priority of a Pod to be adjusted to a higher or lower level than other Pods, which is particularly useful for managing workloads in production clusters. external-link

Pod Security Policy

PodSecurityPolicy provides a mechanism for precise authorization of Pod creation and modifications. It is a cluster-level resource that manages security-sensitive aspects of the Pod specification. PodSecurityPolicy objects establish a set of conditions that a Pod must meet in order to be accepted into the system, as well as defaults for related fields. The control of Pod Security Policy is implemented as an optional admission controller. However, it was deprecated as of Kubernetes v1.21 and removed in v1.25. Instead, users can utilize Pod Security Admission or third-party admission plugins as alternatives. external-link

Point Of Reference Standards (PORS)

Regarding the definition of the Gaia-X Labelling Criteria (refer to Policy Rules and Labelling Document), Point of Reference Standards aim to give an initial overview of available documents, such as standards, programs for evaluating compliance, guidelines from authorities, procurement guidelines, and so on external-link

Policy (legal)

A set of goals, regulations, principles, or guidelines that govern the actions of individuals in a particular context. These are stored in the Compliance Federation Service. external-link

Policy (technical)

Descriptions, regulations, or declarations that define the accurate or anticipated conduct of an entity. In the conceptual framework, they are featured as attributes in all elements associated with Assets and Resources. external-link

Policy Decision Point (PDP)

This refers to a system entity that is capable of making authorization decisions for either itself or other system entities that have requested such decisions. external-link


Portability refers to the ability of a software to operate on various operating systems. When software is created for multiple computing platforms with the same features, portability becomes a critical factor in decreasing development costs. external-link


Kubernetes' preemption logic aids a pending Pod in locating an appropriate Node by displacing low-priority Pods already running on that Node. If a Pod is unable to be scheduled, the scheduler will attempt to evict lower-priority Pods to facilitate scheduling of the pending Pod. external-link


Data that originates from one or multiple verifiable credentials, which were issued by one or multiple issuers and are shared with a specific verifier. external-link


A Principal is a person (either a human or a digital entity) who is accountable or granted permission to act on behalf of the organization. external-link

Production on demand

On-demand manufacturing or production on demand is a production strategy that involves manufacturing goods only when they are ordered or requested by customers. This approach enables scalable and flexible production, allowing for the production of goods that are tailored to the specific needs of the customer based on real-time data.

Catena-X Automotive Network e.V. external-link

Production process

To produce a product, both the Bill of Materials (BoM) and Bill of Process (BoP), including electronic and modular versions (eBoM/mBoM and eBoP/mBoP), are necessary. The production process for a product typically involves a sequence of production steps, each of which is executed on a separate module.

Catena-X Automotive Network e.V. external-link


Data provenance is a documentation of the origin, journey, and reasons for the presence of a piece of data in a database, document, or repository. external-link


An organization or entity that takes responsibility for providing access to a Service/Node within the Gaia-X ecosystem. external-link

Provider Access Management (Provider AM) 

The process of ordering a service will require the involvement of both the consumer and the provider. This particular component is managed internally by the service provider, who will create the service instance and provide the consumer access to it. external-link


In computing, a proxy is a server that acts as an intermediary between a client and a remote service. The client communicates with the proxy, which then copies the client's data to the actual server. The actual server responds to the proxy, which in turn sends the actual server's reply back to the client. Kube-proxy is a network proxy that operates on each node within a Kubernetes cluster, and it is responsible for implementing a portion of the Kubernetes Service concept. You can deploy kube-proxy as a basic userland proxy service. Alternatively, if your operating system allows it, you can run kube-proxy in a hybrid mode that provides the same functionality while utilizing fewer system resources. external-link