Accepted Standard (ref. Policy Rules and Labelling Document)

The acceptance of standards will serve as preliminary proof of meeting Gaia-X criteria when defining Gaia-X Labelling Criteria (as outlined in the Policy Rules and Labelling Document).

https://gaia-x.gitlab.io/glossary/ external-link

Access Control

Resource owners specify attribute values that a subject must provide to be granted access to the resource, while access control enforces limitations on resource access through endpoint-based policies.

https://gaia-x.gitlab.io/glossary/ external-link

Access Point Name

In order to browse the Internet on the go, you need to define the access point, which varies depending on the mobile network operator. It is necessary to adjust the APN settings in the connection software according to the mobile network used.

https://it-gipfelglossar.hpi-web.de/apn/ external-link


Accreditation refers to the confirmation provided by an external organization that a Conformity Assessment Body has the necessary skills and expertise to perform particular Conformity Assessment activities. This certification serves as formal proof of the body's competence in carrying out these tasks.

https://www.gxfs.eu/de/glossar/ external-link

Ad targeting

Targeted marketing refers to a type of marketing, encompassing internet marketing, which aims to reach a specific audience exhibiting particular characteristics, depending on the product or individual being advertised.

Plummer, Joe; Rappaport, Steve; Hall, Taddy (2007-04-11). The Online Advertising Playbook: Proven Strategies and Tested Tactics from the Advertising Research Foundation (1 ed.). John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9780470051054.


This term refers to the ability of a system to perform a specific task, which may be a production step or operation. The term "adaptability" describes the different ways in which a system can be modified or adjusted to perform a task. There are three main types of adaptability: Reconfiguration: This involves activating a known production module or switching to a different tool to execute a task that has been executed before. In modular production systems, this may involve integrating a temporarily deactivated module or enabling plug and play capabilities. Adaptation: This refers to the ability of a system to perform a task that it has not performed before, but has the physical capability to do so. A solution must be found, often through a problem-solving or learning algorithm, that enables the system to execute the task. Adaptation with system extension: If the system does not have the physical capabilities to perform a task or lacks sufficient capability, an extension of the system may be necessary. This may involve adding a new module or enabling new capabilities through new tooling. It is important to distinguish between the different types of adaptation capabilities, as the scope of the adaptations and the tools required to achieve them vary widely.

Catena-X Automotive Network e.V.

Adaptive learning environment

Interactive learning systems that contain personalized learning content and forms of presentation tailored to the individual learner.

https://it-gipfelglossar.hpi-web.de/adaptive-lernumgebung/ external-link


Kubernetes addons are resources that enhance the platform's capabilities, and installing them can expand functionality. Popular addons are also listed in the resource.

https://kubernetes.io/docs/reference/glossary/?all=true external-link

Administration shell

The administration shell provides physical and non-physical economic goods (assets) with a standardized, multi-vendor, interoperable digital twin. The uniform format and semantics of the administration shell allow the digital twin to be used across different company boundaries and follow the asset throughout its entire life cycle.

Catena-X Automotive Network e.V.

Administration to Administration (e.g. transactions between public institutions)

Administration to Administration (A2A) refers to the exchange of information, data, or transactions between different public institutions or administrations. This can include electronic data interchange, document transmission, or conducting transactions between government agencies, authorities, or public organizations. The goal of A2A is to improve efficiency and collaboration between institutions by reducing manual effort and promoting automated exchange of information.

Quelle [AM 13] S. 301 Abts, D.; Mülder, W.: Grundkurs Wirtschaftsinformatik. Eine kompakte und praxisorientierte Einführung. Springer Vieweg, Wiesbaden, 2013.

Administration to Business

Administration to Business (A2B), also known as public institution tendering, is the process in which public institutions, such as government agencies, local governments, or public enterprises, request goods, services, or construction projects from private sector companies. In A2B, the public institution creates a tender that describes the specific requirements, performance characteristics, conditions, and criteria for the desired product or service. The tender is then publicly announced to attract as many potential bidders as possible. Private sector companies then have the opportunity to respond to the tender by submitting a proposal or application that outlines their capabilities, experience, and price proposals. The public institution reviews the received offers and selects the best provider that best meets the requirements.

Quelle [AM 13] S. 301 Abts, D.; Mülder, W.: Grundkurs Wirtschaftsinformatik. Eine kompakte und praxisorientierte Einführung. Springer Vieweg, Wiesbaden, 2013.

Administration to Consumer

Administration to Consumer (A2C), also known as job postings by employment agencies, refers to the process in which employment agencies or other public institutions directly target job postings to individual consumers. In the context of Administration to Consumer, the employment agency or public institution creates a list of available job postings that match the requirements and preferences of job seekers. These job postings are then published through various channels such as online platforms, job boards, local offices, or other media to attract the attention of potential applicants. Individual consumers then have the opportunity to respond to the job postings by submitting their applications or resumes to the employment agency or the specified contact person. The employment agency reviews the received applications and, if necessary, conducts selection processes to choose the most suitable candidates for the open positions.

Quelle [AM 13] S. 301 Abts, D.; Mülder, W.: Grundkurs Wirtschaftsinformatik. Eine kompakte und praxisorientierte Einführung. Springer Vieweg, Wiesbaden, 2013.

Admission Controller

Admission controllers are code that intercepts Kubernetes API server requests before object persistence. They are configurable and can be validating, mutating, or both. They can reject requests, and mutating controllers can modify objects while validating controllers cannot. The Kubernetes documentation has information on admission controllers.

https://kubernetes.io/docs/reference/glossary/?all=true external-link

Advanced Analytics

Sophisticated techniques and tools are utilized in advanced analytics, which involve the independent or semi-independent analysis of data or content, exceeding the realm of conventional business intelligence (BI) and enabling the discovery of profound insights, prediction, or suggestion generation. Advanced analytic methodologies encompass data/text mining, machine learning, pattern matching, forecasting, visualization, semantic analysis, sentiment analysis, network and cluster analysis, multivariate statistics, graph analysis, simulation, complex event processing, and neural networks.

https://www.gartner.com/it-glossary/advanced-analytics/ external-link

Advanced Analytics Workbench

An advanced analytics workbench comprises a set of established tools and techniques that enable businesses to attain improved outcomes.

https://www.linkedin.com/learning/introduction-to-machine-learning-with-knime/why-use-an-analytics-workbench external-link

Advanced Data- Driven Analytics

Advanced analytics solutions utilize data-driven tools and techniques to enable accurate prediction of future events and achieve improved business outcomes, along with providing real-time insights.

https://www.techtarget.com/searchbusinessanalytics/definition/advanced-analytics external-link

Advanced Visualization

Advanced Visualization, also known as advanced visual representation, refers to interactive visual displays that assist in comprehending and communicating complex information and relationships. In contrast to simple dashboards, advanced visualizations offer the additional capability of interactively modifying the display, enabling a gradual analysis of various sub-questions. Furthermore, advanced visualizations typically incorporate coordinated multiple views, which allow interconnected aspects of the visualized data to be simultaneously presented and related to each other.

https://www.bitkom.org/sites/default/files/file/import/140228-Big-Data-Technologien-Wissen-fuer-Entscheider.pdf external-link

Advances Encryption Standard

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has been developing the encryption standard Advanced EncryptionStandard (AES) in cooperation with industrial companies for years. This symmetric encryption is intended to replace DES encryption. The AES encryption specifies three different key lengths with 128, 192 and 256 bits. In the case of the 128-bit key, this means 3.4 x 10exp38 possibilities, with the 192-bit key there are 6.2 x 10exp57 possibilities, and with the 256-bit key there are even 1.1 x 10exp77 possibilities. For comparison, the 56-bit DES key offers 7.2 x 10exp16 possibilities.

http://www.itwissen.info/definition/lexikon/advanced-encryption-standard-AES-AES-Verschluesselung.html external-link


A professional service that offers specialized guidance in a specific field.

https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/advisory external-link

Affective Computing

A computing device equipped with the ability to detect and suitably respond to user emotions and other stimuli is what we refer to as affective computing. This capacity enables the device to gather emotional cues from various sources such as facial expressions, posture, gestures, speech, keystrokes force or rhythm, and even temperature changes of the user's hand on the mouse. All of these cues can signify changes in the user's emotional state, which can then be detected and interpreted by the computer. To accomplish this, a built-in camera captures images of the user, and algorithms are used to process the data into meaningful information. Besides, affective computing applications are exploring technologies such as speech recognition and gesture recognition.

http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/affective-computing external-link


Affinity in Kubernetes consists of rules that provide the scheduler with hints about pod placement. Node affinity and pod-to-pod affinity are the two types of affinity available. Rules are created using Kubernetes labels and selectors defined in pods, and they can be either required or preferred, depending on the level of enforcement desired.

https://kubernetes.io/docs/reference/glossary/?all=true external-link

Aggregation Layer

The aggregation layer in Kubernetes allows the installation of additional Kubernetes-style APIs to the cluster. After configuring the API Server to support these APIs, APIService objects can be added to claim URL paths in the Kubernetes API.

https://kubernetes.io/docs/reference/glossary/?all=true external-link


The Gaia-X European Association for Data and Cloud AISBL (french: association sans but lucrative) is a non-profit association that represents the members of Gaia-X and promotes international cooperation. It is developing the legal framework of Gaia-X and ensures the availability of necessary services.

https://www.gxfs.eu/de/glossar/ external-link


Algorithms are sets of instructions used to solve problems or perform computations. They provide a precise sequence of steps that guide designated actions, and can be implemented in either hardware or software-based processes.

https://www.techtarget.com/whatis/definition/algorithm external-link

Amazon Web Services

AWS, short for Amazon Web Services, is an all-encompassing cloud computing platform provided by Amazon. It offers a mix of infrastructure-as-a-service (IaaS), platform-as-a-service (PaaS), and software-as-a-service (SaaS) options. With AWS services, organizations can leverage tools such as compute power, database storage, and content delivery services.

https://www.techtarget.com/searchwindowsserver/definition/Microsoft external-link

Ambient Assisted Living

A generic term for technical aids that help older people lead healthy and self-determined lives. This includes ideas, goods and services that combine innovative technologies with social aspects and aim to enhance the quality of life of seniors.

https://it-gipfelglossar.hpi-web.de/aal-2/ external-link

Ambient Intelligence

In an ambient system, multiple objects form a unified entity, where the term "object" is broadly defined and can range from a sensor to a laptop. An ambient system has the ability to analyze data captured from the real world and respond flexibly to it. It also adapts to the individual needs of the user and seamlessly integrates new devices into the system.

http://www.fazit-forschung.de/fileadmin/_fazit-forschung/downloads/FAZIT-Schriftenreihe_Band_17.pdf external-link

Analysis object

The phrase employed to denote any items capable of being examined for their trends in value, encompassing demands and capacity, and that are accessible or eligible for a particular analysis.

Catena-X Automotive Network e.V.

Analytical Databases

Analytical databases (often referred to as data warehouses) belong to the class of relational databases. They are optimized for the OLAP25 application scenario, which is characterized by moderately large amounts of data26, extensive support for the SQL query language and a small to moderate number of users. Analytical databases are not new and are often used in conjunction with Hadoop for big data projects.

https://www.bitkom.org/sites/default/files/file/import/140228-Big-Data-Technologien-Wissen-fuer-Entscheider.pdf external-link

Analytical Databases DWH

A database optimized for supporting business intelligence (BI) and analytical applications, usually incorporated in a data warehouse or data mart, is known as an analytic database. An analytic database, also referred to as an analytical database, is a system that is solely for read-only purposes, housing past data on various business metrics like inventory levels and sales performance. It enables business analysts, executives, and other employees to execute queries and generate reports. This database is routinely updated with the most recent transactional data from an organization's operational systems.

http://searchbusinessanalytics.techtarget.com/definition/analytic-database external-link