Capital expenditure

CAPEX, which stands for "capital expenditures," is an abbreviation used to describe investment spending on long-term assets such as machinery, buildings, initial equipment, replacement parts, and computer systems, among others. CAPEX is a crucial metric for a company's balance sheet. These expenditures increase the capitalized assets, which are depreciated over the long term. external-link

Capstone project

A Capstone project is a culminating project that you undertake upon completing all the courses within a Specialization. These projects come in different formats and are intended to exhibit a high level of proficiency in the subject matter covered in the Specialization. external-link

Carrier Aggregation

LTE technology has a component that allows for the use of multiple frequency bands that are not necessarily adjacent. This feature enables mobile network operators to provide users with large bandwidths even when they only have fragmented frequency bands available. external-link

Catalogue of building blocks

The catalogue is a well-organized inventory of endorsed building blocks for dataspaces, which not only defines them but also offers several options for their implementation. By enabling the reuse of commonly implemented building blocks across numerous data spaces, the catalogue ensures consistency. The Data Spaces Support Centre has a structured process for adding, maintaining, and approving building blocks in the catalogue, ensuring that it continues to evolve over time. external-link


Twisted copper wire cables used for transmitting data are classified into different categories. Currently, CAT-5 cables are widely used for frequencies up to 100 MHz, and when combined with RJ-45 connectors, they form the commonly used Ethernet cables. external-link

Central Processing Unit

The CPU, or Central Processing Unit, is the primary component of a computer. It is a microprocessor that monitors and manages all computing operations of the computer, stores results and intermediate results, and holds necessary data for computing operations. The CPU is responsible for executing data transfers as well as logical and arithmetic operations. external-link

Certification Scheme

The IDS Certification Scheme 2.0 (the most recent version) outlines the procedures, responsibilities, objectives, and benchmarks required for certifying components and entities, and is overseen by the Certification Body. external-link


City hubs serve as central points for supplying retail and industrial companies in urban areas and are not dependent on freight forwarders or logistics service providers. They can be operated through the use of networked information and communication technology (ICT), which fills gaps in the mobility and logistics network, enabling dynamic delivery and pick-up routes. external-link


A claim concerning entities articulated using the RDF data model external-link

Click Through Rate

The click-through rate (CTR) is composed of two components that are interrelated and only meaningful in conjunction. One component of the CTR measures the number of clicks on a digital advertisement within a specified time frame. The resulting number of clicks is then compared to the number of ad impressions, which represent how many times users viewed the corresponding advertisement during the same time period. When these two metrics are compared, the click-through rate is obtained and expressed as a percentage. Therefore, CTR is the percentage that indicates the frequency of clicks on a banner ad relative to the frequency of views. external-link

Cloud User

Individuals or entities, whether natural or legal, who utilize cloud solutions. external-link


A cluster of servers, whether they are physical or virtual, that have Kubernetes installed. external-link

Code Division Multiple Access

One possible rephrased version could be: "This is a technique of multiplexing that enables diverse data streams to be carried on a single frequency band using specific encoding methods. It is commonly applied in areas such as 3G mobile networks and GPS." external-link

Cognitive Computing

Cognitive Computing refers to the simulation of human thought processes through a computerized model. This involves self-learning systems that use techniques such as data mining, pattern recognition, and natural language processing to imitate the functioning of the human brain. The ultimate goal of cognitive computing is to create automated IT systems capable of independently solving problems without human intervention. Machine learning algorithms are used by cognitive computing systems to continuously acquire knowledge from the data fed into them. The systems refine their approach to pattern recognition and data processing to become capable of anticipating new problems and generating possible solutions. external-link


Gaia-X fosters and encourages an open-source software community that is open for participation to everyone. This community is comprised of both users and providers, who collaborate together on specified open work packages. external-link

Community Heartbeat

The term "community heartbeat" describes the ongoing and structured interactions that involve the community of practitioners in a synchronized and predictable rhythm. This helps to facilitate effective communication, mutual learning, and consistent advancement towards the development of constantly improving data spaces. The community heartbeat is established through the regular publication of the data spaces blueprint, data spaces building blocks, other assets associated with the Data Spaces Support Center (DSSC), and related activities, as outlined in the publicly available roadmap. external-link

Competitive Monitoring

The process of competitive monitoring involves closely monitoring and evaluating all aspects of the business landscape as part of marketing and strategic management. external-link


Adhering to behavioral rules, legal norms, or voluntary codes is generally known as complying with regulations. This can include areas such as information security and data protection. external-link

Configuration Management

Configuration management (CM) involves the meticulous documentation and continuous updating of data that describes the hardware and software of an organization. This data typically includes the versions and updates of the installed software packages, as well as the network addresses and locations of hardware devices. Dedicated configuration management software can be used for this purpose. Whenever a system requires a software or hardware upgrade, a technician can access the configuration management program and database to review the current setup. This helps the technician to make better-informed decisions about the upgrade needed. external-link

Conformity Assessment

The process of conformity assessment involves confirming that specified requirements regarding a product, process, service, individual, system, or entity have been met. external-link

Conformity Assessment Body (CAB)

The Gaia-X Association reserves the right to select its own Conformity Assessment Bodies (CABs) using its three basic labels. The CABs are responsible for providing conformity assessment services. external-link


Technical capability and administrative authorization or possibility of communication, particularly data communication, require specific tools such as a UMTS radio module in a UMTS network that has an appropriate mobile phone contract. This means having a SIM card that is authorized for data traffic and potentially roaming as well. external-link


A Connector participating in the IDS provides a description that can be read by other IDS Participants. This description is created as the initial step of the Connector configuration process by either the Data Provider or Data User. It includes details such as the name of the Connector provider or maintainer, as well as information about the offered or requested data's content and type, data communication interfaces, and usage policies and contracts. external-link


In the Gaia-X Ecosystem, a Participant who searches for Service Offerings and utilizes Service Instances to provide digital offerings for End-Users is known as a Consumer. external-link

Consumer Electronics

Private consumer electronics, including devices like televisions, CD/MP3 players, set-top boxes, and media receivers. external-link

Controller Area Network

Originally, a (field) bus system was developed by Bosch, which is now internationally standardized (ISO 11898). This system enables communication between distributed components, such as ABS sensors, control units, and braking systems in vehicles. external-link


The architecture (ARMv7-M) is designed for microprocessors from ARM Limited. external-link


This refers to a collection of one or more Claims that are made and authenticated by an issuer. external-link

Customer Premises Equipment

End customers use devices to establish a connection to the network of the carrier or Internet service provider. These devices usually include telephones, routers, switches, and set-top boxes. external-link

Cyber Physical Systems

A coupling and coordination of computing power and mechanical elements through a communication infrastructure such as the Internet is made possible by Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS). Through the integration of sensors and actuators into the overall system, CPS provide real-time system functions for the integration of information, data, and functions. external-link